Business-Level Change Management

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    • have into defining the changes that will affect their work, the more they will take ownership for the results.
    • 12. To change the individual, change the system.

A Change Management Model

According to the Change Management Learning Center [4] , the business dimension of change includes the (following) typical project elements:

    • Business need or opportunity is identified.
    • Project is defined (scope and objectives).
    • Business solution is designed (new processes, systems and organizational structure).
    • New processes and systems are developed.
    • Solution is implemented into the organization.

The Definition and History of Change Management
According to Jeff Hiatt [5] , the field of change management can be confusing and sometimes complicated to research and study, especially for new practitioners. Change management is the application of many different ideas from the engineering, business, and psychology fields. As changes in organizations have become more frequent and a necessity for survival, the body of knowledge known as "change management" has also grown to encompass more skills and knowledge from each of these fields of study.

A Definition of Change Management
According to the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Glossary [6] , change management is defined as:

The Service Management process responsible for controlling and managing requests to effect (requests for) changes (RFCs) to the IT infrastructure or any aspect of IT services to promote business benefit while minimizing the risk of disruption to services. Change management also controls and manages the implementation of those changes that are subsequently given approval.

Mastering Change: Why Organizational Change Fails

According to Mark Sanborn [7] , CSP, CPAE, the following are some of the most common reasons why organizational change fails:

1. Mis-starts

A mis-start occurs when a change is ill advised, hastily implemented, or attempted without sufficient commitment. This is a leadership credibility killer.

2. Making change an option

When leadership commits to a change, the message must be that the change is not an option. But the message that often comes across is "We'd like you to change, we're asking you to change, we implore you to change, please change..." Whenever people have the option not to change, they won't.

3. A focus only on process

Leaders can get so caught up on planning and managing the process that they don't notice that no tangible results are being achieved. The activity becomes more important than the results.

4. A focus only on results

This stems from a belief that the end justifies any means. Organizations tend to fail miserably in this regard: they downplay or ignore the human pain of change. It is this insensitivity to people's feelings that not only prevents the change but destroys morale and loyalty in the process.

5. Not involving those expected to implement the change

A great deal of resentment is aroused when management announces a change and then mandates the specifics of implementation. Employees need to be involved in two ways. First, their input and suggestions should be solicited when planning the change. Secondly, after a change has been committed to, they should be involved in determining the means. Leadership needs to communicate, "Here's what must happen. How do you think it can best be done?"

6. Delegated to "outsiders"

Change is an inside job. Although outsiders like consultants might provide valuable ideas and input, people inside the systems must accept responsibility for the change. Scapegoating and passing the buck is not an option.

7. No change in reward system

If you keep rewarding employees for what they've always done, you'll keep getting what you've always gotten. Make sure that rewards, recognition, and compensation are adjusted for the desired change.

8.

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