the cards are used out-of-the-box. The cards are applied at all three time scales discussed at the beginning of this paper:
- You can define lifecycle milestone objectives using the Vision, System, Project and Team cards. Vision and System can normally be refined into Feature and Architecture Decisions work targets.
- You manage iteration execution with the state-cards as a value stream. State-cards provide building blocks to design your value stream.
- You allocate and manage work by each state-card.
Note that all these are conducted using the same building blocks of state-cards. This encourages a common understanding between persons whose interests are directed at different levels and timescales. The state-cards provide a common language.
Teaching teams to use the cards is also very easy. First I hand out the cards to the team and then I walk through the way to use the cards as described in this paper. Really, that’s it. Of course, if the team is new to iterative and lean development, I would need more time to explain the concepts like time-boxing, continuous flow, reducing wastes, etc. but the basic idea of state-cards is simple. I also supplement with some simulation exercises to reinforce the ideas.
Creating the cards is simple. I use MS-Power-Point and set the page to portrait A4 and craft the state-cards. Then I print them at 16 cards per page at a local printer who cuts them nicely for me. No special software is required.
I encourage you and your team to try the idea of state-cards for yourselves.
 Ivar Jacobson, Pan Wei Ng and Ian Spence, Enough of Processes - Lets do Practices in JOURNAL OF OBJECT TECHNOLOGY, Online at http://www.jot.fm. Published by ETH Zurich, Chair of Software Engineering ©JOT, 2007. Vol. 6, No. 6, July-August 2007
 SEMAT: Software Engineering Method and Theory
About the Author s
Pan-Wei Ng, Ph.D. is a firm believer in a lean and agile development. He strives to improve quality and reduce waste. Dr Ng helps companies in Asia adopt and scale lean and iterative development and other practices. He believes in practicality and leadership by example. In fact, he has recently lost 20 kg in 3 months as a result of applying a lean lifestyle. As the Asia Pacific CTO of Ivar Jacobson International, he contributes to the innovation of software engineering practices. He co-authored of Aspect Oriented Software Development with Use Cases with Dr Ivar Jacobson and believes that aspects and effective separation of concerns are important enablers to rapid lead and agile development.
Mark Magee has been tinkering with various software development methods for over 20 years in a variety of organizations in Japan and the US. Having been born and raised as a foreigner living in Japan, he has a natural tendency to take an objective view of everything, including himself, standing on the outside looking in. This "out-of-the-box" mentality combined with an insatiable appetite for solving puzzles has lead to many unconventional suggestions that continue to surprise and dismay his colleagues at Sony. Current interests include a combination of risk management, lean and agile methods, agile inspection, organizational improvement, effective training delivery, and doughnuts.