Requirements-Based Development: A Software Configuration Management View


The Lean Approach
The lean approach has a slightly different viewpoint. In an attention grabbing presentation by Mary Poppendieck of Lean Software Development fame [6], she made the point that you make more money by increasing your ratio of outputs to inputs, and a key way to improve your productivity is just to do less work! Provide only what the customer will pay for. A quote from Jim Johnson of the Standish Group: users typically use only 25% of the system—65% of features are rarely or never used (see Martin Fowler's write-up of XP2002).

Where do all these extra features come from?

    • We ask the customer what they want
    • We reward them for thinking of everything ("scope")
    • We penalise them for adding features later ("scope creep")

So we effectively train them to go for a humungous, all singing all dancing set of requirements up front! This reinforces requirements as a key differentiating practice. For some alternative ideas she recommends Minimum Marketable Feature Set (Mark Denne & Jane Cleland-Huang, Software by Numbers; Low-Risk, High Return Development, Prentice Hall, 2004).

The Power of Scenarios
Just a quick mention for a very powerful technique—that of writing scenarios to tease out requirements and desired functionality. If you pitch these correctly they can provide an excellent way of communicating the needs of the users. For some examples, see Joel Spolsky’s examples [9]. The related technique that has sprung to the fore is use cases as describe about by Alistair Cockburn [10] in his two books and other related papers.

Managing Requirements
So let’s get a little more practical and look at some of the details of managing requirements. From an SCM point of view this means treating them as configuration items and then implementing the classic processes of: identification, change control, status accounting and configuration audit.

Requirements Tools
To date, the most widely used requirements management tool is Microsoft Word (followed closely by Excel). The huge advantage is the extreme flexibility of these documents as a format for capturing and recording requirements. Word is very convenient and efficient for producing documents (including the majority of these articles!) and its universal availability is another major factor.

The biggest problem with this is that Word documents are frequently managed badly as configuration items. Problems include:

    • Version identification and control for baselines—which version is valid for which release?
    • Binary format makes comparisons difficult and thus tracking changes between versions of the documents difficult

The recent announcements that the next version of MS Office will default to XML formats sounds interesting in that it should make version control much easier.

About the author

Steve Berczuk's picture Steve Berczuk

Steve Berczuk is a Principal Engineer and Scrum Master at Fitbit. The author of Software Configuration Management Patterns: Effective Teamwork, Practical Integration, he is a recognized expert in software configuration management and agile software development. Steve is passionate about helping teams work effectively to produce quality software. He has an M.S. in operations research from Stanford University and an S.B. in Electrical Engineering from MIT, and is a certified, practicing ScrumMaster. Contact Steve at or visit and follow his blog at

About the author

Brad Appleton's picture Brad Appleton

Brad Appleton is a software CM/ALM solution architect and lean/agile development champion at a large telecommunications company. Currently he helps projects and teams adopt and apply lean/agile development and CM/ALM practices and tools. He is coauthor of the book Software Configuration Management Patterns, a columnist for the CMCrossroads and AgileConnection communities at,  and a former section editor for The C++ Report. You can read Brad's blog at

About the author

Robert Cowham's picture Robert Cowham

Robert Cowham has long been interested in software configuration management while retaining the attitude of a generalist with experience and skills in many aspects of software development. A regular presenter at conferences, he authored the Agile SCM column within the CM Journal together with Brad Appleton and Steve Berczuk. His day job is as Services Director for Square Mile Systems whose main focus is on skills and techniques for infrastructure configuration management and DCIM (Data Center Infrastructure Management) - applying configuration management principles to hardware documentation and implementation as well as mapping ITIL services to the underlying layers.

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