discussed earlier, an important part of a logical argument is its conclusion. However, a lack of understanding of this concept can lead to presenting arguments without conclusions. On a number of projects, I have seen testers produce test case documentation in the form of huge tables or Excel spreadsheets listing their test cases. In such tables, each row shows a test case represented by a few columns such as test case number, test input, expected result, and test case execution (pass/fail) status. What is missing in this documentation is a description of what features testers intend to evaluate using these test cases. As a result, it is difficult to judge the validity and verify the completeness of such test cases as the underlying purpose for which they were designed is not known. Such documentation suggests that the testers who designed it do not completely understand the logic of software testing.
Issue 3: Presenting an Argument Without an Implication
This issue also stems from a lack of understanding of the structure of a logical argument, specifically that having an implication is necessary for deriving a valid conclusion. In software testing, such implications are a feature's pass/fail criteria. The issue arises when such criteria are either forgotten or not clearly defined and understood by testers. This can lead to a situation where testers lose sight of what kind of conclusions they need to report. As a result, instead of deriving a conclusion about the feature and then reporting its testing status, they report the status of each executed test case. This situation presents an issue illustrated in the following example.
Let us assume a tester needs to test 10 software features, and he or she designed 10 test cases for each of the features under test. Thus, the entire testing requires executing 100 test cases. Now, while executing test cases, the tester found that one test case failed for each of the features. In our example, the tester did not define and did not think about the feature pass/fail criteria. Instead, the tester reported to a project manager the testing status for each executed test case. Thus, at the end of the testing cycle, the results show that 90 percent of testing was successful. When seeing such results, a manager would be fairly satisfied and could even make a decision about releasing the system.
The project manager would see a completely different picture if the features' pass/fail criteria were not forgotten. In this case, the testers would report the testing status for each feature as opposed to each test case. If the feature fail criterion were defined as, "If any of the feature’s test cases fails, then the feature fails testing," then the testing end result in our example would have been quite the opposite and have shown that none of the software features passed testing; they all should be re-tested when the bugs are fixed.