What's productivity have to do with Quality?
Recently, I had the pleasure of hearing an esteemed colleague speak about the tradeoffs between quality and productivity. His view is that quality and productivity compete for the same resources and you really can't focus on both at any one time. If you want to have zero defects, it does take commitment - often in terms of time, resources and budget. Quality may be free in some circles, but I have seen QA budgets in the millions of dollars. Most QA teams are stretched thin and face a challenge with every release to complete their battery of regression tests within the time allotted. Getting the code out faster often requires tradeoffs that can threaten to adversely impact code and systems quality.
Many projects fight a never-ending battle of trying to meet their deadlines, including implementing enough "critical" features and still staying within budget.
Agile cuts straight to the challenge
Many projects - both Agile and non-Agile - exist in a gray area where their development managers try to get a handle on what needs to be done, the complexities of ever emerging technologies and the battle to produce quality code. When we (as technology professionals) fail, systems crash, functionality does not work as needed and we hear that, once again, a technology effort was over budget. Agile cuts straight to the core of the issue by focusing on techniques which yield running systems that meet the requirements customers really need in the fastest possible time frame - aptly called "sprints" by Scrum enthusiasts. The imagery is compelling as we see small technology teams plan short iterations that yield components which really work and allow us to kick the tires of a running system in record time.
Why does Agile work? How does it really improve Quality?
A lot of people know that I am not a hard-core Agile enthusiast. I am the guy who has said that Agile needs to mature into a more comprehensive framework or else risk losing its relevance in the software development community. I have certainly come to love many of the Agile practices as being the best solution to the tough challenges that technology professionals face every day. One of the reasons that becoming Agile works is because it cuts straight to the challenge of dealing with shifting requirements that are hard to understand, codify and will, most surely, change before the project is done. Successful requirements gathering is critical to any technology effort. Obviously, some requirements are easy to specify and are not likely to change. Other requirements are almost impossible to understand and even harder to document and maintain. Agile holds the banner high with the view that requirements documents should not just be binders of shelfware. Requirements must be maintained as living descriptions of what the customer really needs and wants. Of course that's not easy to do unless the specifications are implicitly part of the quality assurance process.
Test Driven Specifications
All requirements are not alike. Specifying the requirements for a life support system are very different than a large scale SOA business application. The algorithms for a trading system must be specified and documented or else Agile cannot be used in some of the most important financial systems. Test Cases must be kept current or else releases will be deployed with the same defects over and over again. One good way to improve quality is to make test cases which are robust enough to meet the needs of a requirements document. Building testing into the beginning of the process through continuous integration (CI) and automated unit testing is another key feature.
Testing is more than just the rubber stamp at the end of the lifecycle
Agility does a nice job of showing how testing must be built in from the beginning of the lifecycle. Continuous integration (CI) servers immediately take newly committed code and compile them, executing automated tests and of course identifying who broke the build (make sure you get his $2 penalty fine for the office cupcake fund).
Agile has long criticized requirements documents that simply sit unused on the shelf. The implicit (and well-founded) notion is that most requirements documents are outdated before the ink dries. Keeping the requirements documents updated is a huge chore and rarely completed in a satisfactory manner. Of course, there are some systems which must have documented requirements that have been reviewed and validated. It has also long been a service management practice to consider all reported incidents, once triaged and investigated, potential candidates for becoming test cases. Test Driven Requirements refers to using well-written (and current) test documentation as requirements specifications.
The day that I managed to get the development effort to stop
Many years ago, I was involved with a trading system that had little or no written test case documentation. I was responsible for the release management and I always gathered information for the testers regarding exactly which modules had changed in the release and any interesting anomalies that I had observed during the build, deploy and initial smoke testing. The testers had an exhaustive home-grown regression test process that suffered from little or no direct input from the customers (or even the customer liaisons). As luck would have it, I found myself in a meeting with some of these subject matter experts. I remember taking a political risk and challenging them by asking for one hour of their time to write test cases. I promised that they would see the value in exactly one hour if they gave me the chance. I admit that I was pretty scared when I showed up at this internationally recognized trading exchange armed only with my trusty laptop computer.
The Golden Hour
In emergency medical services we talk about the “golden hour”. This is the first hour of care after a traumatic incident. EMS professionals, including this writer, know that the care given during the golden hour is often the decisive factor in whether or not the patient will recover. My own golden hour came when I started interviewing the SMEs and coaching them in how to write effective test cases. Within the first hour, one of the men picked up the phone and called the development manager in charge of the project. The SME told the development manager to stop their work on a particular feature explaining that, “what we have asked for is not what we want.” Getting the subject matter experts to think about testing the application caused them to realize that they had originally requested the wrong functionality. Cognitively, these very smart professionals had gone from passive to active mode and realized how the system should really behave. Writing active and live test cases, and using them as requirements, is a strong best practice that should be used on both agile and non-agile projects to improve quality.
Quality through better process
Improving our processes through Agility is all about making the right choices to implement the right practices. More than that it is about becoming Agile in the way that we approach technology efforts. Frameworks such as SCRUM, XP, paired programming and many others have shown great success in improving quality and productivity. Please share with us your own views on what works and what doesn't as Agility grows into a framework that is synonymous with quality!
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